Two advantages of electrolysis are that it is quicker and can be run continuously. Give two other reasons why electrolysis would be a more efficient method of extraction than the Kroll process. Two other reasons why electrolysis would be a more efficient method of extraction than the Kroll process are.....
The major difference is that the retort size has become larger and the magnesium reduction and vacuum distillation steps are carried out in the same reactor. The Hunter process is very similar to the Kroll process, except that magnesium is replaced by sodium.
Titanium cannot be extracted in this way because it is more reactive than carbon so would not be displaced by it. In addition, titanium carbide (TiC) might form. 3. Aluminium is extracted by electrolysis.
Kroll's titanium was highly ductile reflecting its high purity. The Kroll process displaced the Hunter process and continues to be the dominant technology for the production of titanium metal, as well as driving the majority of the world's production of magnesium metal.
In the Kroll process, one of the ores, such as ilmenite (FeTiO3) or rutile (TiO2), is treated at red heat with carbon and chlorine to yield titanium tetrachloride, TiCl4, which is fractionally distilled to eliminate impurities such as ferric chloride, FeCl3.
Instead, the extraction process involves several stages that are referred to as the Kroll Process. It is the complexity of this process and the energy expended in production that gives titanium its high market price. The metal must first be turned into a porous form, or titanium sponge as it is sometimes called.
Most titanium is now made by the Kroll process, in which titanium dioxide is reacted with chlorine to form titanium etrachloride, which is then reacted with magnesium to strip away the chlorine and leave behind the pure metal. Because the metal has multitudes of pores, it is called titanium "sponge.
Electrolytic Kroll Process
The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium. It was invented in 1940 by William J. Kroll. TiO2 is reacted with C and Chlorine to produce TiCl4 which is liquid at normal. condition and can be purified by distillation.
Hydroiodic, acid does not react at all with purest titanium. Its resistivity can be explained by the formation of protective layers, which are easily dis-solved by hydrofluoric acid.
Titanium is as strong as steel but much less dense. It is therefore important as an alloying agent with many metals including aluminium, molybdenum and iron. These alloys are mainly used in aircraft, spacecraft and missiles because of their low density and ability to withstand extremes of temperature.
Electrolysis is cheaper compared to other methods and generally the results are permanent. The solution used which is made up of electrolysis keeps the metal free from corrosion or rusting. Electrolysis makes the metal attractive and gives an expensive appearance.
The ions in the aluminium oxide must be free to move so that electricity can pass through it. Aluminium oxide has a very high melting point (over 2000°C) so it would be expensive to melt it. Aluminium oxide does not dissolve in water, but it does dissolve in molten cryolite.
Titanium is extracted from its ore, rutile - TiO2. It is first converted into titanium(IV) chloride, which is then reduced to titanium using either magnesium or sodium. The ore rutile (impure titanium(IV) oxide) is heated with chlorine and coke at a temperature of about 1000°C.
Titanium dioxide is reduced to metallic titanium through a calcium titanate and lower titanium oxide by reduction, and the reduced titanium is sintered in molten salt at high temperature.
The Kroll Process is named after William J. Kroll, who invented the process in 1940 to produce zirconium.
The van Arkel–de Boer process, also known as the iodide process or crystal-bar process, was the first industrial process for the commercial production of pure ductile titanium, zirconium and some other metals. It was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925.
In general, titanium is resistant to corrosion by aqua regia (3 parts HCl and 1 part HNO3) at room temperature.
Safe in the body
Titanium is considered the most biocompatible metal – not harmful or toxic to living tissue – due to its resistance to corrosion from bodily fluids. This ability to withstand the harsh bodily environment is a result of the protective oxide film that forms naturally in the presence of oxygen.
While titanium is tough, durable and rust and corrosion resistant in harsh conditions, it is still susceptible to tarnishing and requires regular, though little cleaning and maintenance. Titanium is a metal that is easy to maintain, mainly in part because of its unique titanium oxide barrier.
van Arkel method is used for refining of zinc.
Electrolytic reduction process is generally used for the highly electropositive metals like Potassium, which cannot get reduced in aqueous solutions.
An electrolytic reduction is a form of electrolysis in which electric current passes through an ionic substance in a molten or dissolved state causing the electrodes to react chemically and the materials to decompose.
Background. Titanium is known as a transition metal on the periodic table of elements denoted by the symbol Ti. It is a lightweight, silver-gray material with an atomic number of 22 and an atomic weight of 47.90. It has a density of 4510 kg/m 3 , which is somewhere between the densities of aluminum and stainless steel.
Titanium can take single hits from high-caliber bullets, but it shatters and becomes penetrable with multiple hits from military-grade, armor piercing bullets.